What is Pelvic Pain?

Pain in the pelvic region may originate in the urinary, digestive or reproductive system, or it may be a musculoskeletal issue. It can vary in intensity, from moderate to severe, and it may be constant or intermittent.

Pelvic pain may also be situational, arising with a certain activity, such as sex or urination, and may radiate beyond the pelvic area.


Diagram of pelvic area


What Causes Pelvic Pain?

  • Endometriosis 
  • Adenomyosis
  • Myomas
  • Ovarian cysts or tumors
  • Ovarian torsion
  • Neoplasms
  • Pelvic adhesions
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Infection
  • Cervical stenosis
  • Acute appendicitis 

What Causes Vaginal Pain During Intercourse?

  • Gastrointestinal issues (constipation, irritable bowel)
  • Urinary concerns (interstitial cystitis, urethral syndrome)
  • Insufficient vaginal lubrication
  • Infection
  • Musculoskeletal issues
  • Pelvic vascular congestion


Treatment options for vaginal or pelvic pain depends on the diagnosis and the patient’s individual symptoms. Options may include:

  • Hormonal management, either oral or vaginal, such as birth control pills or vaginal rings.
  • Hormonal injection, such as Depo-Provera.
  • Medications – New medications reduce hormone levels and pain such as Orilissa and Myfrembre.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Laparoscopy (used to diagnose endometriosis and may also be therapeutic)
  • Hysterectomy